Constructors always do refinement

Now constructors in C++, as in Java, always perform refinement. The arguments to the parent can be given explicitly, as shown here. If not explicit, the parent constructor that takes no arguments, sometimes called the default constructor, will be implicitly invoked.

But whichever form is used, the constructor for the parent class will always be invoked.

[audio] [real] Text to accompany slide18, in Chapter 11 of An Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming