Publications

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Books

Journal Articles

A Machine Vision System for Automated Measurement and Assessment of Optical Distortion in Aircraft Transparencies
Michael Dixon, Robert Glaubius, Philip Freeman, Robert Pless, Michael Gleason, Matthew Thomas, and William D. Smart.
Machine Vision and Applications 22(5), 2011.
Decoding Motor Signals From the Pediatric Cortex: Implications for Brain-Computer Interfaces in Children
Jonathan D. Breshears, Charles M. Gaona, Jarod L. Roland, Mohit Sharma, Nicholas Anderson, David T. Bundy, Zachary Freudenburg, Matthew D. Smyth, John Zempel, David D. Limbrick, William D. Smart, and Eric C. Leuthardt.
Pediatrics 128(1), July 2011.
Real-time Naive Learning of Neural Correlates in ECoG Electrophysiology
Zachary Freudenburg, Nicolas F. Ramsey, Mark D. Wronkiewicz, William D. Smart, Robert Pless, and Eric C. Leuthardt.
International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing 1(3), August 2011.
Scheduling Policy Design for Autonomic Systems
Robert Glaubius, Terry Tidwell, Christopher D. Gill, and William D. Smart.
International Journal on Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems 2(3), 2009.
The 2004 Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition
William D. Smart, Sheila Tejada, Bruce A. Maxwell, Ashley Stroupe, Jennifer Casper, Adam Jacoff, Holly Yanco, and Magdalena Bugajska.
AI Magazine 26(2), 2005.
Say Cheese!: Experiences with a Robot Photographer
Zachary Byers, Michael Dixon, William D. Smart, and Cindy M. Grimm.
AI Magazine 25(3), 2004.
2003 AAAI Robot Competition and Exhibition
Bruce A. Maxwell, William D. Smart, Adam Jacoff, Jennifer Casper, Brian Weiss, Jean Scholtz, Holly Yanco, Mark Micire, Ashley Stroupe, Dan Stormont, and Tom Lauwers.
AI Magazine 25(2), 2004.

Refereed Conference Papers

Seeing is Comforting: Effects of Teleoperator Visibility in Robot-Mediated Health Care
Kory Kraft and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 11th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI)", pages 11-18, 2016.
User Feedback on Physical Marker Interfaces for Protecting Visual Privacy from Mobile Robots
Matthew Rueben, Frank Bernieri, Cindy M. Grimm, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 11th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) Late-Breaking Reports", 2016.
Real-time Contamination Modeling for Robotic Health Care Support
Kory Kraft, Tiffany Chu, Hansen Patrick, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robots and Systems (IROS)", pages 2249-2254, 2016.
A Method for Establishing Correspondences between Hand-Drawn and Sensor-Generated Maps
Leo Bowen-Biggs, Suzanne Dazo, Yili Zhang, Alexander Hubers, Matthew Rueben, Ross Sowell, William D. Smart, and Cindy M. Grimm.
In "Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Robotics (ICSR)", pages 1003-1013, 2016.
POMDPs for Risk-Aware Autonomy
William Curran, Cameron Bowie, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the AAAI Fall Symposium on Shared Autonomy in Research and Practice", 2016.
Evaluation of Physical Marker Interfaces for Protecting Visual Privacy from Mobile Robots
Matthew Rueben, Frank Bernieri, Cindy M. Grimm, and William D. Smart.
In "International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN)", pages 787-794, 2016.
Evaluating Impact in the ROS Ecosystem
William Curran, Thomas Thornton, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)", pages 6213-6219, 2015.
Shared Autonomy Perception and Manipulation of Physical Device Controls
Matthew Rueben and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC)", volume 9475, pages 830-841, 2015.
Using Video Manipulation to Protect Privacy in Remote Presence Systems
Alexander Hubers, Emily Andrulis, Levi Scott, Tanner Stirrat, Ruonan Zhang, Ross Sowell, Matthew Rueben, Cindy M. Grimm, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Social Robots (ICSR)", volume 9388, pages 245-254, 2015.
How the Law Will Think About Robots (and Why You Should Care)
William D. Smart and Neil Richards.
In "Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE Workshop on Advanced Robotics and its Social Impacts (ARSO)", pages 50-55, 2014.
Layered Costmaps for Context-Sensitive Navigation
David V. Lu, Dave Hershberger, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robots and Systems (IROS)", pages 709-715, 2014.
Wearable Computing to Enable Robot Microinteractions
Daniel A. Lazewatsky, Cameron Bowie, William Curran, Jasper LaFortune, Benjamin Narin, Duy Nguyen, Amy Wyman, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (Ro-Man)", pages 141-146, 2014.
Accessible Interfaces for Robot Assistants
Daniel A. Lazewatsky and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (Ro-Man)", pages 106-111, 2014.
Towards More Efficient Navigation for Robots and Humans
David V. Lu and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)", 2013.
Tuning Cost Functions for Social Navigation
David V. Lu, Daniel Allan, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Robotics (ICSR)", 2013.
Context-Sensitive In-the-World Interfaces for Mobile Manipulation Robots
Daniel A. Lazewatsky and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 21st IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (Ro-Man)", pages 989-994, 2012.
How Should the Law Think About Robots?
Neil Richards and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of "We Robot": The Inaugural Conference on Legal and Policy Issues Relating to Robotics", 2012.
Polonius: A Wizard of Oz Interface for HRI Experiments
David V. Lu and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (Late Breaking Papers Track)", 2011.
Using Depth Information to Improve Face Detection
Walker Burgin, Caroline Pantofaru, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (Late Breaking Papers Track)", 2011.
RIDE: Mixed-Mode Control for Mobile Robot Teams
Erik Karulf, Marshall Strother, Parker Dunton, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (Late Breaking Papers Track)", 2011.
A Panorama Interface for Telepresence Robots
Daniel A. Lazewatsky and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (Late Breaking Papers Track)", 2011.
An Inexpensive Robot Platform for Teleoperation and Experimentation
Daniel A. Lazewatsky and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2011)", pages 1211-1216, 2011.
Scalable Utility Aware Scheduling Heuristics for Real-time Tasks with Stochastic Non-preemptive Execution Intervals
Terry Tidwell, Carter Bass, Eli Lasker, Micah Wylde, Christopher D. Gill, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 23rd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2011)", pages 238-247, 2011.
A POMDP Model of Eye-Hand Coordination
Tom Erez, Julian J. Tramper, William D. Smart, and Stan C. A. M. Gielen.
In "Proceedings of the 25th Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 2011)", pages 952-957, 2011.
Human-Robot Interactions as Theatre
David V. Lu and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 20th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (Ro-Man 2011)", pages 473-478, 2011.
Context-Aware Video Compression for Mobile Robots
Daniel A. Lazewatsky, Bogumil Giertler, Martha Witick, Leah Perlmutter, Bruce A. Maxwell, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robots and Systems (IROS 2011)", pages 4115-4120, 2011.
Scalable Scheduling Policy Design for Open Soft Real-Time Systems
Robert Glaubius, Terry Tidwell, Brandon Sidoti, David Pilla, Justin Meden, Christopher D. Gill, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS 2010)", pages 237-246, 2010.
A Scalable Method for Solving High-Dimensional Continuous POMDPs Using Local Approximation
Tom Erez and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 26th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI 2010)", Peter Grünwald and Peter Spirtes (eds)., 2010.
Real-Time Scheduling via Reinforcement Learning
Robert Glaubius, Terry Tidwell, Christopher D. Gill, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 26th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI 2010)", Peter Grünwald and Peter Spirtes (eds)., 2010.
Optimizing Expected Time Utility in Cyber-Physical Systems Schedulers
Terry Tidwell, Robert Glaubius, Christopher D. Gill, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 31st IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2010)", pages 193-201, 2010.
Coupling Perception and Action Using Minimax Optimal Control
Tom Erez and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International Symposium on Adaptive Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning (ADPRL 2009)", pages 58-65, 2009.
Receding Horizon Differential Dynamic Programming
Yuval Tassa, Tom Erez, and William D. Smart.
In "Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 20", John C. Platt, Daphne Koller, Yoram Singer, and Sam Roweis (eds)., pages 1465-1472, 2008.
A Supervisory Control Interface for Large Mobile Robot Groups
William D. Smart and Timothy M. Blakely.
In "Proceedings of the American Nuclear Society 12th Robotics and Remote Systems for Hazardous Environments Topical Meeting", pages 457-463, 2008.
Scheduling for Reliable Execution in Autonomic Systems
Terry Tidwell, Robert Glaubius, Christopher D. Gill, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Autonomic and Trusted Computing (ATC-08)", volume 5060, pages 149-161, 2008.
"Seamless Autonomy": Removing Autonomy Level Stratifications
Douglas A. Few, David J. Bruemmer, Curtis W. Nielsen, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the Conference on Human System Interaction (HSI-08)", pages 446-451, 2008.
Computationally Efficient Path-Following using Adaptive Color Models
Stuart Glaser, Eitan Marder-Eppstein, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ICAI 08)", 2008.
What does Shaping Mean for Computational Reinforcement Learning?
Tom Erez and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 7th IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning (ICDL 2008)", pages 215-219, 2008.
Scheduling Design and Verification for Open Soft Real-time Systems
Robert Glaubius, Terry Tidwell, William D. Smart, and Christopher D. Gill.
In "Proceedings of the 2008 Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2008)", pages 505-514, 2008.
"What Does it Do?": HRI Studies with the General Public
Douglas A. Few, Christine M. Roman, David J. Bruemmer, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN 2007)", pages 744-749 , 2007.
Bipedal Walking on Rough Terrain Using Manifold Control
Tom Erez and William D. Smart.
In "IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robots and Systems (IROS 2007)", pages 1539-1544 , 2007.
Faster and More Accurate Face Detection on Mobile Robots using Geometric Constraints
Michael Dixon, Frederick Heckel, Robert Pless, and William D. Smart.
In "IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robots and Systems (IROS 2007)", pages 1041-1046 , 2007.
Is a Common Middleware for Robotics Possible?
William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the IROS 2007 workshop on Measures and Procedures for the Evaluation of Robot Architectures and Middleware", 2007.
A Video Game-Based Mobile Robot Simulation Environment
Josh Faust, Cheryl Simon, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robots and Systems (IROS 2006)", pages 3749-3754 , October 2006.
Interpolation-Based Q-Learning
Csaba Szepesvári and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the Twenty-First International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML 2004)", Russell Greiner and Dale Schuurmans (eds)., pages 791-798, July 2004.
The Remote Exploration Project: A Collaborative Outreach Approach to Robotics Education
James Garner, William D. Smart, Keith Bennett, David J. Bruemmer, Douglas A. Few, and Christine M. Roman.
In "Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2004)", volume 2, pages 1826-1830, April 2004.
Deployable Inspector Spacecraft for Distributed Field Measurements
Jared Macke, David Miller, Michael A. Swartwout, Keith Bennett, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 2004 International Communications Satellite Systems Conference", May 2004.
Explicit Manifold Representations for Value-Function Approximation in Reinforcement Learning
William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the Eigth International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Mathematics", 2004.
Behavior Construction and Refinement from High-Level Specifications
Andrew J. Martignoni III and William D. Smart.
In "Mobile Robots XVII (Proceedings of the SPIE 5609)", pages 289-287, 2004.
A Framework for Robust Mobile Robot Systems
Nik A. Melchior and William D. Smart.
In "Mobile Robots XVII (Proceedings of the SPIE 5609)", pages 145-155, 2004.
Autonomic Systems for Mobile Robots
Nik A. Melchior and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the First International Conference on Autonomic Computing (ICAC)", pages 280-281, 2004.
How to Trust Robots Further than We Can Throw Them
David J. Bruemmer, Douglas A. Few, Michael Goodrich, Donald Norman, Nilanjan Sarkar, Jean Scholtz, William D. Smart, Mark L. Swinson, and Holly Yanco.
In "Proceedings of the CHI 2004 panel on "How to Trust Robots Further than We Can Throw Them"", 2004.
An Autonomous Robot Photographer
Zachary Byers, Michael Dixon, Kevin Goodier, Cindy M. Grimm, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robots and Systems (IROS 2003)", volume 3, pages 2636-2641, October 2003.
Say Cheese!: Experiences with a Robot Photographer
Zachary Byers, Michael Dixon, William D. Smart, and Cindy M. Grimm.
In "Proceedings of the Fifteenth Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conference (IAAI 2003)", John Riedl and Randy Hill (eds)., pages 65-70, August 2003.
The Bandit: An Automated Vision-Navigated Inspector Spacecraft
Jared Macke, Keith Bennett, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 17th AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites", August 2003.
Effective Reinforcement Learning for Mobile Robots
William D. Smart and Leslie Pack Kaelbling.
In "Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)", volume 4, pages 3404-3410, 2002.
Learning Visual Feature Detectors for Obstacle Avoidance using Genetic Programming
Andrew J. Marek, William D. Smart, and Martin C. Martin.
In "Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO 2002) Late-Breaking Papers Track", July 2002.
Reinforcement Learning for Robot Control
William D. Smart and Leslie Pack Kaelbling.
In "Mobile Robots XVI (Proceedings of the SPIE 4573)", Douglas W. Gage and Howie M. Choset (eds)., 2001.
Practical Reinforcement Learning in Continuous Spaces
William D. Smart and Leslie Pack Kaelbling.
In "Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML 2000)", Pat Langley (ed)., pages 903-910, June 2000.
Alternative Access to Assistive Devices
Alistair Cairns, William D. Smart, and Ian W. Ricketts.
In "Proceedings of the Rehabilitation and Engineering Society of North America (RESNA) 1994 Annual Conference", pages 397-399, 1994.
Alternative Access to Assitive Devices for the Physically Impaired
Alistair Cairns, William D. Smart, and Ian W. Ricketts.
In "Proceedings of the Sixth Biennial Conference of the International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC)", pages 449-451, 1994.
Multimodality in the ARCHIE System
William D. Smart, Ian W. Ricketts, Alistair Cairns, and Andy Cobley.
In "Interface to Real and Virtual Worlds: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference", pages 85-95, 1994.
ARCHIE: Plan Recognition and Interface Advice on the Flight Deck
William D. Smart, Alistair Cairns, and Ian W. Ricketts.
In "Knowledge-Based Artificial Intelligence Systems in Aerospace and Industry (Proceedings of the SPIE 2244)", Wray Buntine and Doug H. Fisher (eds)., pages 274-282, 1994.
Location Recognition in Rats and Robots
William D. Smart and John Hallam.
In "From Animals to Animats 3: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (SAB 94)", pages 174-178, 1994.
Location Recognition with Self-Ordering Networks
William D. Smart and John Hallam.
In "Proceedings of the IMACS International Symposium on Signal Processing, Robotics, and Neural Networks", pages 449-454, 1994.

Workshop Papers

Dimensionality Reduced Reinforcement Learning for Assistive Robots
William Curran, Tim Brys, David Aha, Matthew Taylor, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the AAAI Fall Symposium on Artificial Intelligence for Human-Robot Interaction", 2016.
Using PCA to Efficiently Represent State Spaces
William Curran, Tim Brys, Matthew Taylor, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 12th European Workshop on Reinforcement Learning (EWRL)", 2015.
Understanding User Needs: A Systems View
Daniel A. Lazewatsky and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the IROS 2014 Workshop on Assistive Robotics for Individuals with Disabilities: HRI Issues and Beyond", 2014.
Reclaiming Microinteractions for People with Motor Disabilities
Daniel A. Lazewatsky and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the IROS 2014 Workshop on Rehabilitation and Assistive Robotics: Bridging the Gap Between Clinicians and Roboticists", 2014.
Social Navigation: Context is King
David V. Lu and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Robotics Workshop on Embodied Communication of Goals and Intentions", 2013.
Multi-Person Motion Capture Dataset for Analyzing Human Interaction
David V. Lu, Annamaria Pileggi, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the RSS 2011 Workshop on Human-robot interaction: Perspectives and contributions to robotics from the human sciences", 2011.
A Robot Acting Partner
David V. Lu, Chris Wilson, Annamaria Pileggi, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the ICRA 2011 Workshop on "2011 ICRA Workshop on Robots and Art: Frontiers in Human-Centered Robotics as Seen by the Arts"", 2011.
What Can Actors Teach Robots about Interaction?
David V. Lu, Annamaria Pileggi, Chris Wilson, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 2010 AAAI Spring Symposium "It's All in the Timing: Representing and Reasoning about Time in Interactive Behavior"", Frank Broz, Marek Michalowski, and Emily Mower (eds)., 2010.
Evaluating Social Robots: Insights from the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders
William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the IROS 2010 Workshop on Performance Evlauation and Benchmarking for Intelligent Robots and Systems with Cognitive and Autonomy Capabilities", 2010.
Deterministic, Locally-Quadratic Value-Function Approximations over Belief Space
Tom Erez and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the NIPS 2009 Workshop on Probabilistic Approaches for Robotics and Control", 2009.
Scheduling as a Learned Art
Christopher D. Gill, William D. Smart, Terry Tidwell, and Robert Glaubius.
In "Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Operating Systems Platforms for Embedded Real-Time Applications (OSPERT 2008)", pages 53-62, July 2008.
Non-Speech Aural Communication for Robots
Frederick Heckel and William D. Smart.
In "Aurally Informed Performance: Integrating Machine Listening and Auditory Presentation in Robotic Systems: Papers from the AAAI Fall Symposium", Derek Brock, Ramani Duraiswami, and Alexander I. Rudnicky (eds)., pages 28-32, October 2006.
The WURDE Robotics Middleware and RIDE Multi-Robot Tele-Operation Interface
Frederick Heckel, Timothy M. Blakely, Michael Dixon, Chris Wilson, and William D. Smart.
In "AAAI Mobile Robot Competition 2006: Papers from the AAAI Workshop", pages 10-14, July 2006.
Writing Code in the Field: Implications for Robot Software Architectures
William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the ICRA 2005 Workshop on Principles and Practice of Software Development in Robotics (SDIR)", April 2005.
Speeding up Reinforcement Learning using Manifold Representations: Preliminary Results
Robert Glaubius, Motoi Namihira, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the IJCAI 2005 Workshop on Reasoning with Uncertainty in Robotics (RUR 05)", July 2005.
Why (PO)MDPs Lose for Spatial Tasks and What to Do About It
Terran Lane and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the ICML Workshop on Rich Representations for Reinforcement Learning", August 2005.
Manifold Representations for Value-Function Approximation
Robert Glaubius and William D. Smart.
In "Learning and Planning in Markov Processes - Advances and Challenges: Papers from the 2004 AAAI Workshop", Daniela Pucci de Farias, Shie Mannor, Doina Precup, and Georgios Theocharous (eds)., pages 13-18, June 2004.
Programming Robots using High-Level Task Descriptions
Andrew J. Martignoni III and William D. Smart.
In "Supervisory Control of Learning and Adaptive Systems: Papers from the 2004 AAAI Workshop", Mike Rosenstein and Mohammad Ghavamzadeh (eds)., pages 49-54, June 2004.
Integrating Education and Real Research
James Garner, Keith Bennett, William D. Smart, David J. Bruemmer, Douglas A. Few, and Christine M. Roman.
In "Accessible Hands-on Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Education: Papers from 2004 AAAI Spring Symposium", Lloyd Greenwald, Zachary Dodds, Ayanna Howard, Sheila Tejada, and Jerry Weinberg (eds)., pages 129-133, March 2004.
Lewis the Graduate Student: An Entry in the AAAI Robot Challenge
William D. Smart, Michael Dixon, Nik A. Melchior, Joseph Tucek, and Ashwin Srinivas.
In "AAAI Mobile Robot Competition 2003: Papers from the AAAI Workshop", William D. Smart, Bruce A. Maxwell, and Magdalena Bugajska (eds)., pages 46-51, August 2003.
(Not) Interacting with a Robot Photographer
William D. Smart, Cindy M. Grimm, Michael Dixon, and Zachary Byers.
In "Human Interaction with Autonomous Systems in Complex Environments: Papers from the 2003 AAAI Spring Symposum", David Kortenkamp and Michael Freed (eds)., pages 181-186, March 2003.
Visual Feature Detection using Genetic Programming
Andrew J. Marek, William D. Smart, and Martin C. Martin.
In "Proceedings of the Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2003) Workshop on Learning in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition", June 2003.
Middleware for Robots?
Christopher D. Gill and William D. Smart.
In "Intelligent Distributed and Embedded Systems: Papers from the 2002 AAAI Spring Symposium", Gaurav S. Sukhatme and Tucker Balch (eds)., pages 1-5, 2002.
Getting Reinforcement Learning to Work on Real Robots
William D. Smart and Leslie Pack Kaelbling.
In "Proceedings of the Conference on Automated Learning and Discovery (CONALD 98)", June 1998.
A Framework for Reinforcement Learning on Real Robots
William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the US-Japan Graduate Student Forum in Robotics", pages 60-63, 1996.
Practical Multimodality
William D. Smart, Andy Cobley, Ian W. Ricketts, and Alistair Cairns.
In "Proceedings of the ERCIM Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Workshop", November 1993.
ARCHIE: Plan Recognition in a Human-Computer Interface
William D. Smart, Jörgen Flensholt, Carsten Gomard, Alistair Cairns, Ian W. Ricketts, and Erik Hollnagel.
In "Proceedings of the 12th UK Planning/Scheduling SIG Workshop", May 1993.

Book Chapters

How Should the Law Think About Robots?
Neil Richards and William D. Smart.
Chapter 1 in "Robot Law", Ryan Calo, Michael Froomkin, and Ian Kerr (eds)., pages 3-22, Edward Elgar, 2016.
Instance-Based Reinforcement Learning
William D. Smart.
Chapter 352 in "Encyclopedia of Machine Learning", Claude Sammut and Geoffrey I. Webb (eds)., Springer, 2010.
Writing Code in the Field: Implications for Robot Software Development
William D. Smart.
Chapter 5 in "Software Engineering for Experimental Robotics", Davide Brugali (ed)., pages 93-105, Springer, 2007.
Trends in Robot Software Domain Engineering
Davide Brugali, Arvin Agah, Bruce MacDonald, Issa A. D. Nesnas, and William D. Smart.
Chapter 1 in "Software Engineering for Experimental Robotics", Davide Brugali (ed)., pages 3-8, Springer, 2007.
Supporting Complex Robot Behaviors with Simple Interaction Tools
David J. Bruemmer, David I. Gertman, Curtis W. Nielsen, Douglas A. Few, and William D. Smart.
Chapter 3 in "Human-Robot Interaction", Nilanjan Sarkar (ed)., pages 39-63, I-Tech Education and Publishing, 2007.

Technical Reports

RIDE: A Mixed-Mode Control Interface for Mobile Robot Teams
Erik Karulf, Marshall Strother, Parker Dunton, and William D. Smart.
Technical report WUCSE-2012-3, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, January 2012.
What do Collaborations with the Arts Have to Say About Human-Robot Interaction?
William D. Smart, Annamaria Pileggi, and Leila Takayama.
Technical report WUCSE-2010-15, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, 2010.
Scheduling Design and Verification for Open Soft Real-time Systems
Robert Glaubius, Terry Tidwell, William D. Smart, and Christopher D. Gill.
Technical report WUCSE-2008-11, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, June 2008.
Control of a Robotic Arm Using Low-Dimensional EMG and ECoG Biofeedback
Timothy M. Blakely and William D. Smart.
Technical report WUCSE-2007-39, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, May 2007.
Manifold Representations for Value-Function Approximation in Reinforcement Learning
Robert Glaubius and William D. Smart.
Technical report WUCSE-2005-19, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, 2005.
Picture Composition for a Robot Photographer
Michael Dixon, Cindy M. Grimm, and William D. Smart.
Technical report WUCSE-2003-52, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, 2003.
View-Dependent Texture Maps
Cindy M. Grimm, William D. Smart, and John Hughes.
Technical report WUCSE-2002-10, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, 2002.
Location Recognition with Self-Ordering Networks
William D. Smart and John Hallam.
Research paper 683, Department of Artificial Intelligence, University of Edinburgh, 1994.
Multimodal and Alternative Input: A Survey
William D. Smart, Andy Cobley, Alistair Cairns, and Ian W. Ricketts.
Technical report CS93/07, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Dundee University, 1993.

Edited Volumes

AAAI Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition: Papers from the 2004 AAAI Workshop
Frederick Crabbe, William D. Smart, and Sheila Tejada (eds).
Technical report WS-04-11, American Association for Artificial Intelligence, 2004.
AAAI Mobile Robot Competition: Papers from the 2003 Workshop
William D. Smart and Magdalena Bugajska (eds).
Technical report WS-03-01, American Association for Artificial Intelligence, 2003.
AAAI Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition: Papers from the AAAI Workshop
William D. Smart, Tucker Balch, and Holly Yanco (eds).
Technical report WS-02-18, American Association for Artificial Intelligence, 2002.

Patents

Method for Detecting Optical Defects in Transparencies
Ronald L. Bookout, Michael Gleason, Matthew Thomas, Michael Dixon, Robert Pless, and William D. Smart.
United States Patent 8358830, January 2013.
Evaluation of Optical Distortion in a Transparency
Philip Freeman, Michael Gleason, Matthew Thomas, Michael Dixon, Robert Pless, and William D. Smart.
United States Patent 7899236, March 2011.

Theses

Making Reinforcement Learning Work on Real Robots
William D. Smart.
Ph.D. thesis, Department of Computer Science, Brown University, 2002.
Location Recognition with Neural Networks in a Mobile Robot
William D. Smart.
M.Sc. thesis, Department of Artificial Intelligence, University of Edinburgh, 1992.

Abstracts

A Shared Autonomy Interface for Household Devices
Matthew Rueben and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) Extended Abstracts", 2015.
Evaluation of Interfaces for 3d Pointing
Daniel A. Lazewatsky and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) Extended Abstracts", 2015.
Video Manipulation Techniques for the Protection of Privacy in Remote Presence Systems
Alexander Hubers, Emily Andrulis, Levi Scott, Tanner Stirrat, Duc Tran, Ruonan Zhang, Ross Sowell, Cindy M. Grimm, and William D. Smart.
In "Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) Extended Abstracts", 2015.
Optimal Control in Eye-Hand Coordination
Julian J. Tramper, Tom Erez, William D. Smart, and Stan C. A. M. Gielen.
In "Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting: Neuroscience 2011", 2011.
A New Computational Method for Simulation and Optimization of Hominin Gait
Tom Erez, William D. Smart, and Herman Pontzer.
In "American Association of Physical Anthropologists Annual Meeting", April 2009.
Advantages of a Gabor Wavelet Dictionary in ECoG Signal Analysis
Zachary Freudenburg, Nicholas Anderson, William D. Smart, Robert Pless, and Eric C. Leuthardt.
In "Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting: Neuroscience 2008", November 2008.

Other Publications

BeeSoft User's Guide and Software Reference
Wendy Christensen, Tyson Sawyer, Jim Kurien, William D. Smart, Grinnell More, and Sebastian Thrun.
Real World Interface, Inc., Jaffrey, NH, 1997.